Glossary of Platform Law and Policy Terms

Information Fiduciary

Cite this article as:
Nicolo Zingales (17/12/2021). Information Fiduciary. In Belli, L.; Zingales, N. & Curzi, Y. (Eds.), Glossary of Platform Law and Policy Terms (online). FGV Direito Rio.

Author: Nicolo Zingales

Information fiduciaries are entities entrusted with the management of the personal information of third parties. The concept, first proposed by Balkin and Zittrain (2016)1, evokes an analogy with professional figures assigned with fiduciary duties due to the relationship with their clients, which leads to situations of asymmetrical power and. For instance, doctors, lawyers, and accountants are all in a fiduciary relationship with their clients due to their superior knowledge and skills, which requires the establishment of a relationship of trust. As a result, they are bound by duties of care, loyalty, and confidentiality.

Accordingly, the online platforms identified as information fiduciaries would owe their customers a duty of loyalty, that is, to act in the best interests of their customers, without regard to the interests of their own business. They would also owe a duty of care, that is, to act competently and diligently to avoid harm to their customers. This means, for example, that they would not be allowed to use data for different purposes from those stated at the time of collection, and they would be required to take reasonable steps to secure any information entrusted to them. 

The proposal has had some traction in Internet governance circles, leading even to the introduction in the US Senate of a bill (The “Data Care Act”) that would further specify the duties, including the obligation to notify data breaches concerning an individual; the duty not to use data in a way that is unexpected and highly offensive to a reasonable end-user; the duty not to disclose or sell personal data to third parties that do not have the same level of fiduciary duties, and to take reasonable measures to ensure that such duties are fulfilled.

At the same time, the proposal provoked criticism, for one because it does not contain limits on the collection of personal data, but especially because fiduciary obligations to customers are fundamentally incompatible with the nature of publicly listed corporations (where managers are under a fiduciary duty to maximize shareholder value) and the predominant business model on the Internet (where personal data are regularly used for advertising purposes).


Khan, L. M., & Pozen, D. E. (2019). A skeptical view of information fiduciaries. Harv. L. Rev.133, 497.

  1. Balkin, J. M., & Zittrain, J. (2016). A Grand Bargain to Make Tech Companies Trustworthy. The Atlantic. Available at:
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By Nicolo Zingales

Nicolo Zingales is Professor of Information Law and Regulation at the law school of the Fundação Getulio Vargas in Rio de Janeiro, and coordinator of its E-commerce research group. He is also an affiliated researcher at the Stanford Center for Internet and Society, the Tilburg Law & Economics Center and the Tilburg Institute for Law and Technology, co-founder and co-chair of the Internet Governance Forum’s Dynamic Coalition on Platform Responsibility.

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